Involved specialist departments
The specialist departments have the following functions in the context of the integral planning of a building cladding:
The architect has the whole responsibility for the success of the project during the construction planning. He integrates the requirements of the investor and the specifications of the specialist departments in his planning. In context of construction surveillance he coordinates the progress on the building site with support of the expert planners.
The structural engineer advices the architect during the design for a statical effective and economical supporting structure. He provides the calculations for the main structure elements of the building like ceilings, supports, walls and cores. For the building cladding he calculates the statical supporting substructure and provides the deformation values for the points of support. The structural engineer creates implementation plans for all structural elements which show the substantial statical dimensions and details of the design.
The energy consultant prepares the concept for an energy-saving use of the building. In this concept he considers the constructional as well as the plant-specific measures in terms of energy efficiency. With the energy saving regulation applied in 2006/2007 he became more important, because since then in the context of an energy balance you have to consider not only the structure but as well the utilization and complete installation (additional to heating and ventilation the energy use of cooling and lighting must be considered as well).
To meet those demands the energy consultant has an influence on every involved specialist department and keeps ´the records in a first energy performance certificate based on the current planning. He conducts the whole planning and building process, updates his energy performance certificate and controls the adherence of the set limits. When the building is finished, the energy consultant sets up a final energy certificate based on the documentation, the condition and the actual usage of the building.
The climate engineer develops integral concepts for the climate control of rooms. Basis is the quality of the air, the thermal comfort, the energy efficiency and the sustainability of the building. The work and living environment should meet the comfort zone. Technical air conditioning shall be minimized under the usage of physical laws. Under control of the climate engineer the involved departments are linked together at an early stage of the planning progress. The quality desired by the investor according to a modern working environment is included in those concepts.
To implement those targets the climate engineer uses computer simulations which allow to evaluate constructional and/or plant-specific measures. There are measures in laboratories to support those simulations (for example aerodynamic measures). The result from those simulations are foundations for further decisions regarding object and technical planning and guidelines especially for controlling and regulation. In the stage of execution it is possible to control the programming of the systems via supporting simulations. In service an attendant simulation allows to do a target/actual performance comparison to localize weak points and optimisations of the building control.
Thermic and hygric building physics
The thermic and hygric building physics is engaged with the effects of heat and humidity, the heat and humidity transport in buildings and the impact of the thermic climate to people. The target is to offer a comfortable climate and protect the construction from damage. In the process of planning the building physicist works out the constructive parameters and the layer structure of the components, which are continuously developed and detailed until they are prepared for implementation. He designs the constructional thermal insulation with the purpose of energetic optimization.
To control the structural quality the building physicist uses meteorological procedures additional to visual control e.g. air density measurements, infrared-thermal imaging and hermic/hygric measurements. He contributes significant to the planning of the building cladding. Links between the planning and the building physics are for example: thermal insulation layers, thermal bridges, steam barriers, sun protection, glazing, ventilation systems, building sealing.
Noise insulation and room acoustics
Noise insulation is concerned with the protection of people regarding ambient noises. The buildings construction has to protect from exterior noise (for e.g. traffic noise or industrial noise) as well as noises from the inside of the building caused by the user or technical equipment.
The room acoustics occupies with appropriate usage of the acoustic environment and with the interior design for sound performances, speech and music. Especially in highly communicative rooms the room acoustic is important to secure clear communication and comfort. The links to the planning of the building cladding are mainly in the area of the facade through requirements for the noise insulation in form of direct insulation and edge level difference. In matters of room acoustics connections occured by the task to match the room areas with an energy efficient climate concept designed without sound-absorbing materials.
The fire protection planner defines the necessary fire-resistance of components in the context of the fire protection, also the fire compartments, means of escape in the building as well as emergency exits and movement areas for the fire brigade. Within the framework of the technical fire protection he consults during the planning of fire detectors, fire-fighting systems, smoke and heat outlet installations and security and alerting systems. The building cladding has to allow smoke extraction and has to prevent the flames and fumes from reaching another floor or fire compartment.
The facade planner is responsible for the constructive development and implementation of facades and transparent roofs.
In his planning he integrates the desires of the investor and architect as well as the technical requirements of the listed specialist departments. The facade planner designs and develops in an iterative process of coordination with the different specialists a technical and economical optimized solution, also with regard to deadlines of the project handling, for e.g. by suitable assembly technology. By providing accurate requirement profiles via detail planning and tender documents he enables the investor an economic and realistic way of construction. He ensures the requested quality of the planning progress and execution of the facade construction company.
Heat losses and overheating which cause discomfort are compensated by heat- and cooling systems. So in cases where natural forces are not enough mechanical supported gasper supplies are necessary. The building automation regulates the systems. The heat-climate-ventilation planner adjusts the system for the usage in the different rooms. In matters of the planning of the building cladding especially de-central compartment air systems require the coordination with the facade planner.
Openings in the building cladding for smoke outlets are usually powered electromagnetic. Further there are often illuminating and measuring elements in the building cladding. The electric planner plans the merge of the electric cables to gather and regulation devices. In this connection he coordinates especially with the facade planner.
Building automation planning
The regulation of electric power units in the building cladding for smoke outlets, natural routing of air flow, sun protection and daylight control elements depend on a multitude of climatic and usage conditions. The building automation planner plans the required regulation processes. The building automation compares the provided data of the sensors with the nominal value and sends control signals to the motors. In a case of smoke or fire the smoke and heat outlets have absolute priority and overdrive all other signals e.g. the “natural ventilation”. The processes have to adapt closely to the operating schedule of the building, so the targets in terms of comfort, safety and energy efficiency are met.
The daylight is a very important factor for the comfort of people. The natural illumination of rooms depends on the daylight transparency of the building cladding, operating status of the sun protection, the position in the building and the supply of daylight. The light planner arranges the rooms with external facades together with the climate planner for an optimized use of daylight so the runtime of artificial light is minimized. The building cladding can be used for a subsequent art lighting. The light planner plans placement, performance and colouring of the light sources.
Alongside the facade also the roof, the ground walls and the floor plates are part of the building cladding. Their reliability is of essential importance for the sustainability of a building.
The sealing planner is specialized in such problems and able to determine the choice of materials and their characteristics for the layer construction of sealing, insulation-, use- and protection layers consistent with the design, supporting structure and requirements for the utilization (free weathered, accessible, drivable, ground touching, planted) in an early stage of planning. Beside layer sequences and slope specifications especially the detail planning of the connections, interstices and penetrations demand expert knowledge.
To guarantee the durable function of the building cladding, facade- and glass surfaces demand frequent cleaning and maintenance. For high and not accessible facades from bottom special cleaning and maintenance appliances like cranes or Building maintenance units are necessary. The height access planner designs such systems and arranges them with the structural and facade planner.
The wind powered air stream of a building claddings is often very complex. The compressive forces at the building cladding as a result of turbulences, recirculation, flow deviation etc. can be captured realistic currently only in an experimental examination in a wind tunnel. The aerodynamic engineer determinates the static load on the building cladding, the wind conditions at ground level and the distribution of pressure on the base of the wind tunnel data. Latter is of high importance for the wind powered vertical transverse flow system, the natural smoke extraction and the sun protection regulation. Here are close similarities to the mentioned specialist departments.